Feb 18, · Alfred Nobel, in full Alfred Bernhard Nobel, (born October 21, , Stockholm, Sweden—died December 10, , San Remo, Italy), Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes. Apr 28, · Born in Sweden, chemist Alfred Nobel worked at his father's arms factory as a young man. Intellectually curious, he went on to experiment with chemistry and explosives. In Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins.
Alfred Nobel October 21, —December 10, was a Swedish chemist, engineer, businessman, and philanthropist best remembered for inventing dynamite. Paradoxically, Nobel spent most of his adult life creating ever more powerful explosives, while writing poetry and drama, and advocating for world peace. After reading a prematurely written obituary condemning him for profiting from the sale of arms and munitions, Nobel bequeathed his fortune to establish the Nobel Prizes for peace, chemistry, physics, medicine, and literature.
The same year Nobel was born, his father, an inventor and engineer, went bankrupt due to financial misfortune and a fire that destroyed much of his work. These hardships left the family in poverty, with only Alfred and his three brothers surviving past childhood. Though prone to illness, the young Nobel showed an interest in explosives, having inherited a passion for technology and engineering from his father, who had graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
Nobel was also a descendant of the 17th-century Swedish scientist, Olaus Rudbeck. After failing at various business ventures in Stockholm, Immanuel Nobel moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, inwhere he established himself as a successful mechanical engineer providing equipment for the Russian Army. His work included torpedoes and explosive mines, which would detonate when what does boiler insurance cover ship hit them.
These mines worked by using a small explosion to set off bigger ones, an insight which would later prove helpful to his son, Alfred, in his how to make crazy quilt of dynamite.
InAlfred and the rest of the Nobel family joined Immanuel in St. By age 16, he had mastered chemistry and was fluent in English, French, German, and Russian as well as Swedish. Though Nobel was interested in poetry and literature, his father wanted him to become an engineer, and in what are the house of representatives, he sent him to Paris to study chemical engineering.
Though the explosive power of the chemical was much greater than that of gunpowderit tended to explode unpredictably when subjected to heat or pressure and could not be handled with any degree of safety. As a result, it was rarely used outside the laboratory. Petersburg business, which had flourished through its sales to the Russian Army. However, when the Crimean War ended inthe army canceled its orders, leading Nobel and his father Immanuel to look for new products to sell.
Nobel and his father had heard of nitroglycerine from Professor Zinin, who had shown it to them at the beginning of the Crimean War. They began working on nitroglycerine together. One idea, for example, was to use nitroglycerine to improve explosives for Immanuel's mines. However, Immanuel was not able to achieve any notable improvement. Nobel, on the other hand, made significant strides with the chemical.
InImmanuel was facing bankruptcy again and returned to Sweden with his wife and another of his sons. Meanwhile, Nobel stayed in St.
Petersburg with his brothers Ludvig and Robert. His brothers soon focused on rebuilding the family business, eventually turning it into an oil empire called The Brothers Nobel. InNobel returned to Stockholm and continued working with nitroglycerine. That same year, he invented a practical explosives detonator how to get control of your finances of a wooden plug inserted into a larger charge of nitroglycerin held in a metal container.
Nobel soon began mass producing nitroglycerine in Stockholm, founding companies throughout Europe. However, several accidents with nitroglycerine led authorities to introduce regulations restricting the manufacture and transport of explosives.
InNobel invented an improved version of his detonator he called the blasting cap. Instead of a wooden plug, his blasting cap consisted of a small metal cap containing a charge of mercury fulminate that could be exploded by either shock or moderate heat. The blasting cap revolutionized the field of explosives and would prove integral to the development of modern explosives.
The use of nitroglycerine was banned in Stockholm, and Nobel continued to manufacture the chemical on a barge on a lake near the city. Despite the high risk involved in using nitroglycerine, the chemical had become essential to mining and railway construction. Nobel continued looking for ways to make nitroglycerine safer. During his experiments, he found that combining nitroglycerine with kieselguhr also called diatomaceous earth; mostly made of silica formed a paste that allowed the chemical to be shaped and detonated on command.
Since the user could control the explosions, it had many applications in construction work, including tunnel blasting and road building. Nobel continued creating companies and laboratories all over the world, amassing a fortune.
Nobel went on to combine nitroglycerin with other materials to produce even more commercially-successful explosives. Soon adopted as the standard explosive for mining, gelignite brought Nobel even greater financial success. InNobel was honored by being elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and inhe was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from Uppsala University in Uppsala, Sweden, the oldest university in all of the Nordic countries still in operation today.
Even as Nobel was building his explosives industry fortune, his brothers Ludvig and Robert were becoming wealthy themselves by developing oil fields along the shores of the Caspian Sea. With businesses in Europe and America, Nobel traveled throughout most of his life but maintained a home in Paris from to Despite achieving undeniable success in both his inventing and business undertakings, Nobel remained a reclusive individual who suffered through periods of deep depression.
True to his lifelong interest in literature, he wrote poems, novels, and plays, few of which were ever published. An agnostic in his youth, Nobel became an atheist in his later life. Politically, while Nobel was considered a progressive by his contemporaries, he might have best been described as a classical liberalperhaps even a Libertarian.
He opposed allowing women to vote and often expressed his distrust of democracy and its inherent what is the nationality of alfred nobel as a mechanism for selecting government leaders.
A pacifist at heart, Nobel often expressed a hope that the mere threat of the destructive powers of his explosive inventions would forever end war. However, he remained pessimistic about the willingness and ability of mankind and governments to maintain perpetual peace.
Nobel never married, possibly fearing that romantic relationships might interfere with his first love—inventing. Despite their brief relationship, Nobel and Bertha von Suttner continued to correspond with one another. Byhe had developed angina pectoris, and died of a stroke on December 10,at his villa in San Remo, Italy. By the time of his death at age 63, Nobel had been issued patents and, despite his apparent pacifist beliefs, had established more than 90 explosives and ammunitions factories worldwide.
Inthe first Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature were awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, and the Peace Prize in what is now Oslo, Norway. Nobel never explained why he chose to bequeath his fortune to establish his namesake awards. Always a rather reticent character, he remained largely isolated in the days before his death. However, it is possible that a freakish incident in may have motivated him. Having worked so hard during his life to portray himself as a pacifist at heart, Nobel was outraged to read what might be written about him in his future obituary.
He may have created the prizes to avoid being posthumously labeled a warmonger. Updated by Robert Longley. Share Flipboard Email. Alane Lim. Science Expert. Alane Lim holds a Ph. She has published numerous peer-reviewed journal articles on nanotechnology and materials science. Updated April 27, Cite this Article Format. Lim, Alane. Biography of Alfred Nobel, Inventor of Dynamite.
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by Nils Ringertz* Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on 21 October His father, Immanuel Nobel, was an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. In connection with his construction work Immanuel Nobel also experimented with different techniques for blasting rocks. Alfred’s mother, born Andriette Ahlsell, came from a wealthy mesmmdaten.comted Reading Time: 9 mins. Apr 27, · Alfred Nobel (October 21, –December 10, ) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, businessman, and philanthropist best remembered for inventing dynamite. Paradoxically, Nobel spent most of his adult life creating ever more powerful explosives, while writing poetry and drama, and advocating for world mesmmdaten.comted Reading Time: 7 mins. What was the nationality of Alfred Nobel? What was the nationality of Alfred Nobel? A. American B. British C. German D. Swedish. Mcq Added by: admin. General Knowledge MCQs. General Knowledge Mcqs consists of World Geography, Atmosphere, Science & Literature, events Mcqs, Current Affairs Mcqs, Pakistan Affairs Mcqs and International.
He held different patents , dynamite being the most famous. He owned Bofors , which he redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Having read a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to the Nobel Prize institution.
The family was impoverished, and only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Alfred Nobel's interest in technology was inherited from his father, an alumnus of Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
Following various business failures, Nobel's father moved to Saint Petersburg in and grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He invented the veneer lathe which allowed the production of modern plywood  and started work on the torpedo. Now prosperous, his parents were able to send Nobel to private tutors and the boy excelled in his studies, particularly in chemistry and languages, achieving fluency in English, French , German and Russian.
As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin ; then, in , went to Paris to further the work. There he met Ascanio Sobrero , who had invented nitroglycerin three years before. Sobrero strongly opposed the use of nitroglycerin, as it was unpredictable, exploding when subjected to heat or pressure. But Nobel became interested in finding a way to control and use nitroglycerin as a commercially usable explosive, as it had much more power than gunpowder.
Nobel filed his first patent, an English patent for a gas meter , in , while his first Swedish patent, which he received in , was on "ways to prepare gunpowder". The family factory produced armaments for the Crimean War — , but had difficulty switching back to regular domestic production when the fighting ended and they filed for bankruptcy.
Nobel and his parents returned to Sweden from Russia and Nobel devoted himself to the study of explosives , and especially to the safe manufacture and use of nitroglycerin. Nobel invented a detonator in , and in designed the blasting cap.
On 3 September , a shed used for preparation of nitroglycerin exploded at the factory in Heleneborg , Stockholm, Sweden, killing five people, including Nobel's younger brother Emil. Dynamite was patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in mining and the building of transport networks internationally. Nobel was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in , the same institution that would later select laureates for two of the Nobel prizes, and he received an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University in Nobel's brothers Ludvig and Robert founded the oil company Branobel and became hugely rich in their own right.
Nobel invested in these and amassed great wealth through the development of these new oil regions. During his life Nobel was issued patents internationally, and by his death his business had established more than 90 armaments factories, despite his apparently pacifist character. In , the death of his brother Ludvig caused several newspapers to publish obituaries of Alfred in error.
One French newspaper published an obituary titled "Le marchand de la mort est mort" "The merchant of death is dead". Nobel read the obituary and was appalled at the idea that he would be remembered in this way. His decision to posthumously donate the majority of his wealth to found the Nobel Prize has been credited at least in part to him wanting to leave behind a better legacy. Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent inert substance like kieselguhr diatomaceous earth it became safer and more convenient to handle, and this mixture he patented in as "dynamite".
Nobel later combined nitroglycerin with various nitrocellulose compounds, similar to collodion , but settled on a more efficient recipe combining another nitrate explosive, and obtained a transparent, jelly-like substance, which was a more powerful explosive than dynamite. Gelignite , or blasting gelatine, as it was named, was patented in ; and was followed by a host of similar combinations, modified by the addition of potassium nitrate and various other substances.
It was adopted as the standard technology for mining in the "Age of Engineering", bringing Nobel a great amount of financial success, though at a significant cost to his health.
An offshoot of this research resulted in Nobel's invention of ballistite , the precursor of many modern smokeless powder explosives and still used as a rocket propellant. In , Alfred's brother, Ludvig, died while visiting Cannes , and a French newspaper mistakenly published Alfred's obituary.
Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday. On 27 November , at the Swedish - Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes , to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality.
The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in physical science , in chemistry and in medical science or physiology ; the fourth is for literary work "in an ideal direction" and the fifth prize is to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of international fraternity , in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses.
The formulation for the literary prize being given for a work "in an ideal direction" i idealisk riktning in Swedish , is cryptic and has caused much confusion. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted "ideal" as "idealistic" idealistisk and used it as a reason not to give the prize to important but less romantic authors, such as Henrik Ibsen and Leo Tolstoy.
There was room for interpretation by the bodies he had named for deciding on the physical sciences and chemistry prizes, given that he had not consulted them before making the will.
In his one-page testament, he stipulated that the money go to discoveries or inventions in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in chemistry. He had opened the door to technological awards, but had not left instructions on how to deal with the distinction between science and technology. Since the deciding bodies he had chosen were more concerned with the former, the prizes went to scientists more often than engineers, technicians or other inventors.
Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its th anniversary in by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a sixth prize in the field of economics in honour of Alfred Nobel.
In , Alfred Nobel's great-great-nephew, Peter Nobel born , asked the Bank of Sweden to differentiate its award to economists given "in Alfred Nobel's memory" from the five other awards. Nobel was accused of high treason against France for selling Ballistite to Italy, so he moved from Paris to Sanremo , Italy in Nobel travelled for much of his business life, maintaining companies in Europe and America while keeping a home in Paris from to In , Austro-Bohemian Countess Bertha Kinsky became his secretary, but she left him after a brief stay to marry her previous lover Baron Arthur Gundaccar von Suttner.
Her contact with Nobel was brief, yet she corresponded with him until his death in , and it is believed [ by whom?
She was awarded the Nobel Peace prize "for her sincere peace activities". He also developed sufficient literary skill to write poetry in English.
His Nemesis is a prose tragedy in four acts about Beatrice Cenci. It was printed while he was dying, but the entire stock was destroyed immediately after his death except for three copies, being regarded as scandalous and blasphemous. It was published in Sweden in and has been translated into Slovenian and French.
It was dedicated in to mark the 90th anniversary of the first Nobel Prize presentation. Diplomat Thomas Bertelman and Professor Arkady Melua were initiators of the creation of the monument Professor A.
Melua has provided funds for the establishment of the monument J. The abstract metal sculpture was designed by local artists Sergey Alipov and Pavel Shevchenko, and appears to be an explosion or branches of a tree. Criticism of Nobel focuses on his leading role in weapons manufacturing and sales, and some question his motives in creating his prizes, suggesting they are intended to improve his reputation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Swedish chemist, innovator, and armaments manufacturer — For the Irish racehorse, see Alfred Nobel horse.
Not to be confused with Alfred Noble. Stockholm , Sweden. Sanremo , Italy. Main articles: Dynamite , Gelignite , and Ballistite. Main article: Nobel Prize. The Norwegian Nobel Committee. Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 29 March Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 26 January Nobel: The Man and His Prizes. Coordinating Ed. Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 3 May Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries , p.
ISBN Retrieved 13 October Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology. Retrieved 1 October Tekniska museet in Swedish. Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 6 December Cambridge University Press. Historical Monetary and Financial Statistics for Sweden Exchange rates, prices, and wages, — The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates.
Watson Publishing International. Alfred Nobel: a biography. Nobel Media AB. March Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 9 December Petersburg, —". Alfred Nobel, the loneliest millionaire.
Ritchie Press. New York: Plenum,