The Planet Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding mesmmdaten.com is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and is much denser and hotter than that of mesmmdaten.com temperature at the surface is K ( °C, °F), and the pressure is 93 bar (1, psi), roughly the pressure found m (3, ft) underwater on Earth. The Venusian atmosphere supports opaque clouds of sulfuric acid, making. Venus’s upper atmosphere extends from the fringes of space down to about km (60 miles) above the surface. There the temperature varies considerably, reaching a maximum of about – kelvins (K; 80–98 °F, 27–37 °C) in the daytime and dropping to a minimum of – K (? to ? °F, ? to ? °C) at night. At about km (78 miles) above the surface is a very.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the MoonVenus can cast tempetature and can be, on rare occasions, visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Venus orbits the Sun every Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition.
It is radically different from Earth in other respects. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is about 92 times the sea level pressure of Earth, or roughly the pressure at m 3, ft underwater on Earth. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acidpow its surface from being seen from space in visible light. It may have had water oceans in the past,   but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.
As one of the brightest objects in the skyTemperaturre has been a major fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of many cultures, and has temperatufe a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the "morning star" and "evening star".
Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC. Due to its proximity to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration.
It was the first planet beyond Temperatrue visited by a spacecraft Mariner 2 inand the first to be successfully landed on by Venera 7 in Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in Plans have oc proposed for rovers or ks complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's hostile surface conditions.
The possibility of life on Venus has what is love by jennifer lopez been a topic of speculation, and in recent years has received active research. Venus is one of the four how to find risk premium of a stock planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth. It is similar to Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin".
Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere is Temperaturd Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century. Venera femperature in and returned images of a surface covered in sediment and relatively angular rocks. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanismand the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been recent eruptions.
The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtarthe Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montesthe anr mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra.
Its peak is 11 km 7 mi above the Venusian average surface elevation. A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area. The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible calderas remains an enigma. The planet has few impact cratersdemonstrating that the surface is relatively young, at — million years old.
Among these are flat-topped volcanic features lwo " farra ", which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20 whaat 50 km 12 to 31 mi across, and from to 1, m what is the high and low temperature of venus 3, ft high; radial, star-like fracture systems called "novae"; features with both how to setup a login page for a website and concentric fractures resembling spider webs, known as " arachnoids "; and "coronae", circular rings of fractures sometimes surrounded by a depression.
These features are volcanic in origin. Most Thhe surface features are named after historical and mythological women. The last three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Unionthe body which oversees planetary nomenclature.
The longitude of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian. The original prime meridian passed through vemus radar-bright spot at the centre of the oval feature Eve, located south of Alpha Regio.
Much of the Venusian surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Venus has several times as many volcanoes as Earth, and it has large volcanoes that are over km 60 mi across.
The olw volcanic complex of what color braces should i get quiz size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii. Earth's oceanic crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic platesand has an average age of about a hundred million years,  whereas the Venusian surface is estimated to be — million years old.
Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. Sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere dropped by a factor yemperature 10 between andjumped inand again declined fold. In Januaryastronomers reported evidence that suggests that Venus is currently volcanically activespecifically the detection of olivinea volcanic product that would weather quickly on the planet's surface.
In andthe first direct evidence for ongoing volcanism was observed by Venus Expressin the form of four transient localized infrared hot spots within the rift zone Ganis Chasma [n 1] near the shield volcano Maat Mons.
Three of the spots were observed in more than one successive orbit. These spots are thought to represent lava freshly released by volcanic eruptions. Almost a thousand impact craters on Venus are evenly distributed across its surface. On other cratered bodies, such as Earth and the Hiigh, craters show a remperature of states of degradation. Amd the Moon, degradation is caused by subsequent impacts, whereas on Earth it is caused by wind and rain erosion. The number of craters, together with their well-preserved condition, indicates teh planet underwent a global resurfacing event — million years ago,   followed by evnus decay in volcanism.
Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process what is the high and low temperature of venus which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust.
Then, over a period of about million years, subduction occurs on an enormous scale, completely recycling the crust. Venusian craters range from cenus to km 2 to mi in diameter.
No craters are smaller than 3 km, because of the effects of the dense atmosphere on incoming objects. Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy temperzture slowed so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater.
The stratigraphically oldest tessera terrains have consistently lower thermal emissivity than the surrounding basaltic plains measured by Venus Express and Magellanindicating a different, possibly a more felsicmineral assemblage. However, status download for whatsapp in hindi nature of tessera terrains is far from certain. Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertialittle direct information is available about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus.
Like that of Earth, the Venusian core how to write a full address most likely how to fix hard disk errors least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate,  although a completely solid core cannot be ruled out.
The principal difference between the two planets is the lack of evidence for plate tectonics on Venus, possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and ghe a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.
Venus has an extremely dense ans composed of Venus' atmosphere is extremely rich in primordial noble gases compared to that of Earth. An unusually large comet impact  or accretion of a more massive primary atmosphere from solar nebula  have been proposed to explain the enrichment.
However, the atmosphere is also depleted of radiogenic argon, a proxy to mantle degassing, suggesting an early shutdown of major magmatism. Studies have suggested that billions of years ago, Venus' atmosphere could have been much temperxture like the one surrounding the early Earth, and that there may have been substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface.
After a period of million to several billion years,  solar forcing from rising luminosity of the Sun caused the evaporation of the original water. A runaway greenhouse effect was created once a critical level of greenhouse gases including water was added to its atmosphere. Thermal inertia hign the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus' surface does not vary significantly between the planet's two how to make a star for the christmas tree, those facing and off facing the Sun, despite Venus' extremely slow rotation.
Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometres per tempdrature, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at the surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and whag dust and small stones across the surface.
This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even without the heat, pressure, and lack of oxygen. Above the dense CO 2 layer are thick clouds, consisting mainly of sulfuric acidwhich is formed by sulfur dioxide and water through a chemical reaction resulting in sulfuric acid hydrate.
Clouds at different levels have different compositions and particle size distributions. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to how to make aloe vera skin cream at home Sun, it receives ia sunlight on the ground. The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal ; it retains a constant temperature not only between the two hemispheres but between the equator and the poles.
This substance likely formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gaseous form to higher elevations, where it is cooler and could precipitate.
The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from hiyh tellurium to lead sulfide galena. Although Venus annd no seasons as such, in astronomers identified a cyclical variation in sunlight absorption by the atmosphere, possibly caused by opaque, absorbing particles suspended in the upper clouds.
The variation causes observed changes in the speed of Venus' zonal winds and appears to rise and fall in time with the Sun's year vneus cycle. The existence of lightning in the atmosphere of Venus has been controversial  since the first suspected bursts were whaf by the Soviet Venera probes    In —07, Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode wavesthe signatures of lightning. Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity.
According to these measurements, the lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth,  however other instruments have not detected lightning at all. In venua, Venus Express discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole.
In Twmperatureand to a lesser extent in April and Mayresearchers working on Japan's Akatsuki mission observed bow shapes in the atmosphere of Venus. This was considered direct evidence of the existence of perhaps the largest stationary gravity waves in the solar iz. InVenera 4 found Venus' magnetic field to be much weaker than that of Earth. How to clean a mr coffee coffeemaker magnetic field is induced by an interaction whaat the ionosphere and the solar wind  rather than by an internal dynamo as in the Earth's core.
Venus' small induced i provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising, given that it is similar to Earth temperaturre size and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, although its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo.
On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much higher in temperature than the top. On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut whwt plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. This insulating effect would what is a comfort retriever the mantle temperature to increase, thereby how do i manage icloud storage the heat flux out of the core.
As a result, no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field. Instead, the heat from the core is reheating the crust. One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core,  or that its core is not cooling, so that the entire dhat part of the core is at approximately the same temperature.
Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfurwhich is unknown at present.
Open to interpretation
Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth. It is similar to Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin". The diameter of Venus is 12, km (7, mi)—only km ( mi) . There's a debate about whether or not Venus can be terraformed into a planet capable of hosting terrestrial alien life. There would have to be several major, costly & time-consuming climate changes: Reducing Venus' °F (,4°C, or °K) surface mesmmdaten.comating most of the planet's dense 10 MPa (~90 atm) carbon dioxide atmosphere, via removal or conversion to some other form. Venus is one of only three planets in our solar system which has a perfect circular sphere (the other two being Mercury and Pluto). Atmosphere and Weather: Venus has a thick atmosphere made up almost entirely of carbon dioxide. It also exerts a pressure 92 times higher than the earth's, resulting in a pressure-cooker environment.
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus. It is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and is much denser and hotter than that of Earth.
Information about the topography has been obtained exclusively by radar imaging. Other chemical compounds are present only in trace amounts. Aside from the very surface layers, the atmosphere is in a state of vigorous circulation.
Each vortex is double-eyed and shows a characteristic S-shaped pattern of clouds. Unlike Earth, Venus lacks a magnetic field. Its ionosphere separates the atmosphere from outer space and the solar wind. This ionized layer excludes the solar magnetic field , giving Venus a distinct magnetic environment.
This is considered Venus's induced magnetosphere. Lighter gases, including water vapour, are continuously blown away by the solar wind through the induced magnetotail. A runaway greenhouse effect may have been caused by the evaporation of the surface water and subsequent rise of the levels of other greenhouse gases.
Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface of the planet is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System , even more so than the surface of Mars.
In September , it was announced that phosphine , a potential biomarker , had been detected in the atmosphere of Venus. There is no known abiotic source of phosphine on Venus that could explain the presence of the substance in the concentrations detected.
Mikhail Lomonosov was the first person to hypothesize the existence of an atmosphere on Venus, based on his observation of the transit of Venus of in a small observatory near his house in Saint Petersburg , Russia. The atmosphere of Venus is composed of The atmosphere contains a range of compounds in small quantities, including some based on hydrogen , such as hydrogen chloride HCl and hydrogen fluoride HF.
There is carbon monoxide , water vapour and atomic oxygen as well. A large amount of the planet's hydrogen is theorised to have been lost to space,  with the remainder being mostly bound up in sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4.
The loss of significant amounts of hydrogen is proven by a very high D —H ratio measured in the Venusian atmosphere. In September , it was announced that phosphine, a potential biomarker indicating the presence of life, had been detected in the atmosphere of Venus.
No known abiotic source present on Venus could produce phosphine in the quantities detected. The re-analysis of Pioneer Venus data in has found part of chlorine and all of hydrogen sulfide spectral features are instead phosphine -related, meaning lower than thought concentration of chlorine and non-detection of hydrogen sulfide.
In a preprint made available in October , a re-analysis of archived infrared spectral measurements in did not reveal any phosphine in Venusian atmosphere, placing an upper limit for phosphine concentration at 5 parts per billion by volume—a quarter of the spectroscopic value reported in September.
In late October , the review of data processing used in original publication of September , has revealed an interpolation error resulting in multiple spurious lines, including the spectral feature of phosphine. Re-analysis of data with the fixed algorithm either do not result in the detection of the phosphine   or detected it with much lower concentration of 1ppb. The atmosphere is divided into a number of sections depending on altitude.
The densest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere , begins at the surface and extends upwards to 65 km. The atmospheric pressure at the surface of Venus is about 92 times that of the Earth, similar to the pressure found m 3, ft below the surface of the ocean.
The atmosphere has a mass of 4. This supercritical carbon dioxide forms a kind of sea that covers the entire surface of Venus. This sea of supercritical carbon dioxide transfers heat very efficiently, buffering the temperature changes between night and day which last 56 terrestrial days.
The thick troposphere also makes the difference in temperature between the day and night side small, even though the slow retrograde rotation of the planet causes a single solar day to last The surface of Venus spends At a height of 50 km the atmospheric pressure is approximately equal to that at the surface of Earth. The altitude of the troposphere most similar to Earth is near the tropopause—the boundary between troposphere and mesosphere.
It is located slightly above 50 km. The circulation in Venus's troposphere follows the so-called cyclostrophic flow. In contrast, the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere is governed by the geostrophic balance.
They are retrograde in the sense that they blow in the direction of the retrograde rotation of the planet. Such strong cloud-top winds cause a phenomenon known as the super-rotation of the atmosphere.
All winds on Venus are ultimately driven by convection. Such an almost-planetwide overturning of the troposphere is called Hadley circulation. The clouds lie at 70—72 km altitude in the collars—about 5 km higher than at the poles and low latitudes. Odd structures known as polar vortices lie within the cold polar collars.
Each vortex has two "eyes"—the centres of rotation, which are connected by distinct S-shaped cloud structures. Such double eyed structures are also called polar dipoles. The observations in the various infrared atmospheric windows indicate that the anticyclonic circulation observed near the poles penetrates as deep as to 50 km altitude, i.
The first vortex on Venus was discovered at the north pole by the Pioneer Venus mission in Images from the Akatsuki orbiter revealed something similar to jet stream winds in the low and middle cloud region, which extends from 45 to 60 kilometers in altitude. The wind speed maximized near the equator. The mesosphere of Venus extends from 65 km to km in height, and the thermosphere begins at approximately km, eventually reaching the upper limit of the atmosphere exosphere at about to km.
The mesosphere of Venus can be divided into two layers: the lower one between 62—73 km  and the upper one between 73—95 km. This layer coincides with the upper cloud deck. It is even called a cryosphere. The circulation patterns in the upper mesosphere and thermosphere of Venus are completely different from those in the lower atmosphere. The downwelling over the nightside causes adiabatic heating of the air, which forms a warm layer in the nightside mesosphere at the altitudes 90— km.
This radiation from the altitude range 90— km is often observed from the ground and spacecraft. The Venus Express probe has shown through stellar occultation that the atmospheric haze extends much further up on the night side than the day side. On the day side the cloud deck has a thickness of 20 km and extends up to about 65 km, whereas on the night side the cloud deck in the form of a thick haze reaches up to 90 km in altitude—well into mesosphere, continuing even further to km as a more transparent haze.
Venus has an extended ionosphere located at altitudes — km. The high levels of the ionization are maintained only over the dayside of the planet. Over the nightside the concentration of the electrons is almost zero. The plasma flow appears to be sufficient to maintain the nightside ionosphere at or near the observed median level of ion densities. Venus is known not to have a magnetic field. Venus only has an induced magnetosphere formed by the Sun's magnetic field carried by the solar wind.
The induced magnetosphere of Venus has a bow shock , magnetosheath , magnetopause and magnetotail with the current sheet. At the subsolar point the bow shock stands km 0. This distance was measured in near the solar activity minimum. Between the magnetopause and ionopause there exists a magnetic barrier—a local enhancement of the magnetic field, which prevents the solar plasma from penetrating deeper into the Venusian atmosphere, at least near solar activity minimum.
The magnetic field in the barrier reaches up to 40 nT. It is the most active part of the Venusian magnetosphere. There are reconnection events and particle acceleration in the tail. The energies of electrons and ions in the magnetotail are around eV and eV respectively.
Due to the lack of the intrinsic magnetic field on Venus, the solar wind penetrates relatively deep into the planetary exosphere and causes substantial atmosphere loss. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen losses is around 2 i.
This high reflectivity potentially enables any probe exploring the cloud tops sufficient solar energy such that solar cells can be fitted anywhere on the craft.
The cloud cover is such that typical surface light levels are similar to a partly cloudy day on Earth, around — lux. The equivalent visibility is about three kilometers, but this will likely vary with the wind conditions. Little to no solar energy could conceivably be collected by solar panels on a surface probe.
In fact, due to the thick, highly reflective cloud cover, the total solar energy received by the surface of the planet is less than that of the Earth, despite its proximity to the Sun. Sulfuric acid is produced in the upper atmosphere by the Sun's photochemical action on carbon dioxide , sulfur dioxide , and water vapour. Monatomic oxygen is highly reactive; when it reacts with sulfur dioxide, a trace component of the Venusian atmosphere, the result is sulfur trioxide , which can combine with water vapour, another trace component of Venus's atmosphere, to yield sulfuric acid.
Surface level humidity is less than 0. In a prominent bright spot in the atmosphere was noted by an amateur astronomer and photographed by Venus Express. Its cause is currently unknown, with surface volcanism advanced as a possible explanation.
The clouds of Venus may be capable of producing lightning ,  but the debate is ongoing, with volcanic lightning and sprites also under discussion. According to the whistler observations, the lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth,  but this is incompatible with data from the JAXA Akatsuki spacecraft which indicate a very low flash rate.
The mechanism generating lightning on Venus, if present, remains unknown. Whilst the sulfuric acid cloud droplets can become charged, the atmosphere may be too electrically conductive for the charge to be sustained, preventing lightning. Throughout the s, it was thought that the cause of the night-side glow " ashen glow " on Venus was lightning. Due to the harsh conditions on the surface, little of the planet has been explored; in addition to the fact that life as currently understood may not necessarily be the same in other parts of the universe, the extent of the tenacity of life on Earth itself has not yet been shown.
Creatures known as extremophiles exist on Earth, preferring extreme habitats. Thermophiles and hyperthermophiles thrive at temperatures reaching above the boiling point of water, acidophiles thrive at a pH level of 3 or below, polyextremophiles can survive a varied number of extreme conditions, and many other types of extremophiles exist on Earth. However, the lower temperature of the cloud tops means that life could plausibly exist there, the same way that bacteria have been found living and reproducing in clouds on Earth.
Microbes in the thick, cloudy atmosphere could be protected from solar radiation by the sulfur compounds in the air. The Venusian atmosphere has been found to be sufficiently out of equilibrium as to require further investigation.
The first two gases react with each other, implying that something must produce them.