World Culture Encyclopedia
Apr 19, · Argentina has long played an important role in the continent’s history. Following three centuries of Spanish colonization, Argentina declared independence in , and Argentine nationalists were instrumental in revolutionary movements elsewhere, a fact that prompted 20th-century writer Jorge Luis Borges to observe, “South America’s independence was, to a great extent, an Argentine. Mate is a tisane, or herbal tea, that is popular in Argentina as well as in Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Mate is the Quechuan word for "gourd". Mate is served in a hollow gourd (or occasionally a horn or a hoof), and drunk through a metal straw called a mesmmdaten.com serving style originated with a native culture, the mesmmdaten.com Guarani called the yerba mate plant Caa'.
It is the highest mountain in the Americasthe highest outside Asia and the highest in both the Southern and the Western Hemispheres  with a summit elevation of 6, metres 22, ft.
It lies kilometres 70 miles northwest of the provincial capital, the city of Mendozaabout five kilometres three miles from San Juan Provinceand 15 km 9 mi from Argentina's border with neighbouring Chile. Aconcagua is bounded by the Valle de las Vacas to the north and east and the Valle de los Horcones Inferior to the west and south. The mountain and its surroundings are part of the Aconcagua Provincial Park.
The mountain has a number of glaciers. The largest glacier is the Ventisquero Horcones Inferior at about 10 km 6 mi long, which descends from the south face to about 3, m 11, ft in altitude near the Confluencia camp.
The most well known is the north-eastern or Polish Glacieras it is a common route of ascent. The origin of the name is uncertain. Aconcagua used to be an active stratovolcano from the Late Cretaceous or Early Paleocene through the Miocene and consisted of several volcanic complexes on the what is the meaning of roflmao of a basin with a shallow sea.
However, sometime in the Miocene, about 8 to 10 million years ago, the subduction angle started to decrease, resulting in a stop of the melting and more horizontal stresses between the oceanic plate and the continent, causing the thrust faults that lifted Aconcagua up off its volcanic root. The rocks found on Aconcagua's flanks are all volcanic and consist of lavas, breccias and pyroclastics. The shallow marine basin had already formed earlier Triassiceven before Aconcagua arose as a volcano.
However, volcanism has been present in this region for as long as this basin was around and volcanic deposits interfinger with marine deposits throughout the sequence. The colorful greenish, blueish and grey deposits that can be seen in the Horcones Valley and south of Puente Del Inca, are carbonates, limestones, turbidites and evaporates that filled this basin.
The red colored rocks are intrusions, cinder deposits and conglomerates of volcanic origin. In mountaineering terms, Aconcagua is technically an easy mountain what does stand down mean in the military approached from the north, via the normal route.
Aconcagua is arguably the highest non-technical mountain in the world, since the northern route does not absolutely require ropes, axes, and pins [ clarification needed ]. Altitude sickness will affect most climbers to some extent, depending on the degree of acclimatization.
Given the weather conditions close to the summit, cold weather injuries are very common. The routes to the peak from the south and south-west ridges are more demanding and the south face climb is considered quite difficult.
The Polish Glacier Traverse route, also known as the "Falso de los Polacos" route, crosses through the Vacas valley, ascends to the base of the Polish What is the culture of argentina, then traverses across to the normal route for the final ascent to the summit.
The third most popular route is by the Polish Glacier itself. Bribing porters with the story of treasure on the mountain, he approached the mountain via the Rio Volcan, making two attempts on the peak by the north-west ridge and reaching an altitude of 6, metres 21, ft. The route that he prospected is now the standard route up the mountain. The first recorded  ascent was in by a European expedition led by the British mountaineer Edward FitzGerald. FitzGerald failed to reach the summit himself over eight attempts between December and Februarybut the Swiss guide of the expedition, Matthias Zurbriggen reached the summit on 14 January.
On the final attempt a month later, two other expedition members, Stuart Vines and Nicola Lanti, reached the summit on 13 February. As of [update] the youngest person how to cite using mla format for websites reach the summit of Aconcagua is Tyler Armstrong of California.
He was nine years old when he reached the summit on 24 December In the base camp Plaza de Mulas at 4, m 14, ft above sea level there is the highest contemporary art gallery tent called "Nautilus" of the Argentine painter Miguel Doura.
In Kilian Jornet set a record for climbing and descending Aconcagua from Horcones in 12 hours and 49 minutes. This is the first time in history a twin-engine helicopter has landed at this altitude. It took a total of 45 minutes for the entire trip, 30 minutes from Mendoza and another 15 from the base camp up to the peak.
This is not the highest a helicopter has landed before, as a single-engine Airbus Helicopters H landed on Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world. The mountain has a cameo in a Disney cartoon called Pedrowhich features a small, anthropomorphic airplane named Pedro who has a near-disastrous encounter with Aconcagua while carrying mail over the Andes. At nearly 7, m 23, ft Aconcagua is the highest peak outside of Asia. More than people have died on Aconcagua since records began.
Due to the improper disposal of human waste in the mountain environment there are significant health hazards  that pose a threat to both animals and human beings. Additionally, ecofriendly toilets are available only to members of an organised expedition, meaning climbers have to "be contracted to a toilet service" at the base camp and similar camps along the route.
Currently, from two base camps Plaza de Mulas and Plaza Argentinaover barrels of waste approx. How to create application specific password in gmail, many independent mountaineers defecate on the mountainside. For the Incasthe Aconcagua was a sacred mountain. As on other mountains e. Ampatoplaces of worship were built here and sacrifices, including human sacrificeswere made.
The sites discovered in at an altitude of m are among the highest in the world and are the most difficult of all Inca sites to reach. Here, the remains of a child bedded on grass, cloth and feathers were found inside stone walls Aconcagua mummy.
The clothing indicates that the child was a member of the highest social class. Other offerings found included figures and coca leaves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Aconcagua disambiguation.
Highest mountain in the Americas. See also: Andean Orogeny. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 3 December Aconcagua: A Climbing Guide.
The Mountaineers. ISBN There is no definitive proof that the ancient Incas actually climbed to the summit of the White Sentinel [Aconcagua], but there is considerable evidence that they did climb very high on the mountain. Signs of Inca ascents have been found on summits throughout the Andes, thus far the highest atop Llullaillacoa 6,metre 22, ft mountain astride the Chilean-Argentine border in the Atacama region.
On Aconcagua, the skeleton of a guanaco was found in along the ridge connecting the North Summit with the South Summit. It seems doubtful that a guanaco would climb that high on the mountain on its own. El Portal de Mendoza in Spanish. Retrieved 29 June Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 27 June McColl, R.
InfoBase Publishing. Retrieved 23 September Aconcaguamap Map. South American Explorers Club 4— Retrieved 22 September — via University of Texas.
Archived from the original PDF on 27 September Retrieved 5 October US Army Research Inst. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 5 March McClure's Magazine. BBC News. Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 26 October Guinness World Records.
Climbing Magazine. International Journal of Environmental Studies. ISSN What to buy him on valentines day Retrieved 25 May Environmental Management.
In: J. Higham, A. Thompson-Carr and G. Musa eds. Mountaineering Tourism London: Routledgepp. Aconcagua category. What is the culture of argentina Summits.
Everest 8, m or 29, ft. Aconcagua 6, m or 22, ft. Denali Mount McKinley 6, m or 20, ft.
World Culture Encyclopedia: North America, Oceania, South Asia, Europe, East / Southeast Asia, Russia - Eurasia / China, South America, Middle America / Caribbean, and Africa / Middle East. Mar 29, · A fact that the Argentine tourism board prefers not to promote is the large scale migration of Nazis into Argentina after the end of the Second World War. Thanks to the country’s controversial leader who had help from some Nazi sympathizers in Europe, as many as 5, SS Officers and Nazi Party members were thought to have found a new life in Argentina after the fall of the Third Reich. Apr 07, · Nearly two months ago, students in Argentina began returning to classrooms, after no face-to-face teaching since March of But as a second wave of infections has begun, teachers warn of the dangers of continuing classes, while many parents hope there remains a way their children can benefit from going to school.
Argentina , country of South America , covering most of the southern portion of the continent. It encompasses immense plains, deserts, tundra, and forests, as well as tall mountains, rivers, and thousands of miles of ocean shoreline. Argentina also claims a portion of Antarctica, as well as several islands in the South Atlantic, including the British-ruled Falkland Islands Islas Malvinas. Defeat led to the fall of the military regime and the reestablishment of democratic rule, which has since endured despite various economic crises.
The elemental earth was not perturbed either by settlements or other signs of humanity. The country was vast, but at the same time it was intimate and, in some measure, secret. The limitless country sometimes contained only a solitary bull. The solitude was perfect and perhaps hostile, and it might have occurred to Dahlmann that he was traveling into the past and not merely south. Despite the romantic lure of the Pampas and of vast, arid Patagonian landscapes, Argentina is a largely urban country.
Buenos Aires , the national capital, has sprawled across the eastern Pampas with its ring of modern, bustling suburbs. Its industries have drawn colonists from Italy , Spain, and numerous other countries, millions of whom immigrated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Greater Buenos Aires is home to about one-third of the Argentine people. Argentina is shaped like an inverted triangle with its base at the top; it is some miles 1, km across at its widest from east to west and stretches 2, miles 3, km from the subtropical north to the subantarctic south.
The country is bounded by Chile to the south and west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil , Uruguay , and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Its undulating Atlantic coastline stretches some 2, miles 4, km. The Andean region extends some 2, miles 3, km along the western edge of the country from Bolivia to southern Patagonia, forming most of the natural boundary with Chile. It is commonly subdivided into two parts: the Northwest and the Patagonian Andes, the latter of which is discussed below under Patagonia.
The centrally located plains, or Pampas, are grasslands subdivided into arid western and more humid eastern parts called, respectively, the Dry Pampa and the Humid Pampa. Patagonia is the cold, parched, windy region that extends some 1, miles 1, km south of the Pampas, from the Colorado River to Tierra del Fuego. This part of the Andes region includes the northern half of the main mountain mass in Argentina and the transitional terrain, or piedmont, merging with the eastern lowlands.
Within the region the Andean system of north-south—trending mountain ranges varies in elevation from 16, to 22, feet 4, to 6, metres and is interrupted by high plateaus punas and basins ranging in elevation from about 10, to 13, feet 3, to 4, metres. The mountains gradually decrease in size and elevation southward from Bolivia.
Some of these mountains are volcanic in origin. To the southeast, where the parallel to subparallel ranges become lower and form isolated, compact units trending north-south, the flat valleys between are called bolsones basins. This southeastern section of the Northwest is often called the Pampean Sierras, a complex that has been compared to the Basin and Range region of the western United States. The Pampean Sierras have variable elevations, beginning at 2, feet metres in the Sierra de Mogotes in the east and rising to 20, feet 6, metres in the Sierra de Famatina in the west.
The Gran Chaco in Argentina descends in flat steps from west to east, but it is poorly drained and has such a challenging combination of physical conditions that it remains one of the least-inhabited parts of the country. East of the Gran Chaco, in a narrow depression 60 to miles to km wide, lies Mesopotamia , which is bordered to the north by the highlands of southern Brazil. The eastern boundary is the Atlantic coast. The largely flat surface of the Pampas is composed of thick deposits of loess interrupted only by occasional caps of alluvium and volcanic ash.
In the southern Pampas the landscape rises gradually to meet the foothills of sierras formed from old sediments and crystalline rocks.
This region consists of an Andean zone also called Western Patagonia and the main Patagonian plateau south of the Pampas, which extends to the tip of South America.
The surface of Patagonia descends east of the Andes in a series of broad, flat steps extending to the Atlantic coast. The cliffs are rather low in the north but rise in the south, where they reach heights of more than feet 45 metres.
The landscape is cut by eastward-flowing rivers—some of them of glacial origin in the Andes—that have created both broad valleys and steep-walled canyons. Patagonia includes a region called the Lake District , which is nestled within a series of basins between the Patagonian Andes and the plateau.
These hills and the accompanying lava fields have dark soils spotted with lighter-coloured bunchgrass, which creates a leopard-skin effect that intensifies the desolate, windswept appearance of the Patagonian landscape.
Glacial ice in the past extended beyond the Andes only in the extreme south, where there are now large moraines. It drains an area of some 1. Wide rivers flow across the Gran Chaco flatlands, but their shallow nature rarely permits navigation, and never with regularity. Moreover, long-lasting summer floods cover vast areas and leave behind ephemeral swamplands.
During winter most rivers and wetlands of the Gran Chaco dry up, the air chills, and the land seems visibly to shrink.
In the Northwest the Desaguadero River and its tributaries in the Andes Mountains water the sandy deserts of Mendoza province. In the northern Pampas, Lake Mar Chiquita , the largest lake in Argentina, receives the waters of the Dulce, Primero, and Segundo rivers but has no outlet. Rivers that cross Patagonia from west to east diminish in volume as they travel through the arid land. The Colorado and Negro rivers , the largest in the south-central part of the country, produce major floods after seasonal snow and ice melt in the Andes.
Farther south the Santa Cruz River flows eastward out of the glacial Lake Argentino in the Andean foothills before reaching the Atlantic.
Soil types in Argentina range from the light-coloured saline formations of the high puna in the Northwest to the dark, humus-rich type found in the Pampas. Golden-brown loess soils of the Gran Chaco are sometimes lighter where salinity is excessive but turn darker toward the east in the Mesopotamian border zone. These give way to soils ranging from rust to deep red colorations in Misiones.
Thick, dark soils predominate in the fertile loess grasslands of the Pampas, but lighter brown soils are common in the drier parts of northern Patagonia. Light tan arid soils of varying texture cover the rest of this region. Grayish podzolic types and dark brown forest soils characterize the Andean slopes. Videos Images Audio. Additional Info. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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Explore the many faces of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Flock of sheep in the Pampas, Argentina. Listen to a farmer talking about raising sheep in Patagonia. Sheep raising in Patagonia, southern Argentina. It is one of the Patagonia region's most-popular tourist attractions. Load Next Page.