What is steganography and how does it differ from cryptography?
Jul 06, · Steganography is the practice of hiding a secret message inside of (or even on top of) something that is not secret. That something can be just about anything you want. These days, many examples of steganography involve embedding a secret piece of text inside of a picture. Or hiding a secret message or script inside of a Word or Excel mesmmdaten.com: James Stanger. Mar 18, · What is Steganography and How to do Steganography and Steganography examples? Let understand first what is Steganography? Steganography is an art to send a confidential information to another user via binding that message to another file, media mesmmdaten.comted Reading Time: 4 mins.
Hello Friends! Today I will talk about Steganography. What is Steganography and How to do Steganography and Steganography examples? Let understand first what is Steganography?
Steganography is an art to send a confidential information to another user via binding that message to another file, media etc. It is made up of using two Greek words Steganos and graphien in which steganos means covered, concealed, hidden and graphien means message. You all are thinking that where this Steganography is used.
So, you all know that all the countries having a secret agency like an Intelligence agency. Their agents are present in another country also. Agents use this method to send the different country information to their country.
They cannot send what is steganography with examples all data directly. In that case, they use Steganography. Steganography is not a newly commerce in the market. Peoples use this technique from very past time. You how to potty train a guinea pig fast see many examples how peoples send their hidden message in BC.
Some, of the examples I tell you. Peoples shave their head when they write a message on their head and when the hair grows then their message also hide. After reaching their destination how to improve ipad 2 camera guy again shaved their head and shows their message.
There are many tricks to send the hidden message. Steganography examples is a very long topic to tell you about the techniques how peoples send their hidden message techniques of the earlier time.
You can learn about it by clicking here. In this digital world, By using steganography we can send our hidden data in a second to our team. I will show you some basic Steganography examples in this tutorial. I am going to show you how to hide a secret message in an Image File. You can see here I have a normal Image file.
For hiding a message in this file we have to open the command prompt in this location. So, type cmd in the search bar and hit enter. You can see here the command is properly run. That means my message is hidden properly. You can open your image file and you cannot find any change in that image file. But If you want to see the message which is hidden in the image file. You can see here we can see the hidden message here. Now, I will show you how to hide zip file inside your image file.
So, take both files zip file and image file in a single folder. You can see here I have two files one is a zip file and second is an image file. This command will hide the zip file in your newly made image file. Let how to measure video quality the meaning of this command.
So, you can give any name to this. You can see here the command is executed properly. But to open this zip file you have to open this image file in a zip file. By using this technique you can attach any of the what is steganography with examples files with it. Hackers use this technique to hide any file. Hackers can send their viruses with this technique.
So, with the revolution of time the steganography techniques also become advance. In my how much soil do i need to lay turf tutorial, I will tell you about cryptography also. If you have any doubts regarding this tutorial then you can ask us in the comment section.
Attaching the executive file in a image then after opening the image,is the executive file can also install in the background without knowledge of victim after opening the image? You should bind your payload with an executable file. For ex:- games exe file, software file.
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Jul 12, · Steganography is an ancient practice that involves hiding messages and data. From its humble origins that involved physically hiding communications and using invisible inks, it has now moved into the digital realm, allowing people to slip critical information into seemingly mundane mesmmdaten.com: Josh Lake. Sep 17, · Broadly steganography techniques could be classified into Physical: One that does not involve the use of digital mediums or files. Examples of such techniques include Passing messages written with invisible ink, which can then be read by the intended recipient by .
Steganography is an ancient practice that involves hiding messages and data. From its humble origins that involved physically hiding communications and using invisible inks, it has now moved into the digital realm, allowing people to slip critical information into seemingly mundane files.
It may not be as popular as its older brother cryptography, but steganography still has important applications. To put it simply, steganography is the study and practice of concealing information. It can be done either physically or digitally, with techniques ranging from blinking in Morse code to hiding data in.
The first written case of steganography is found in Histories by Herodotus. He writes that it happened during the Ionian Revolt, an uprising of some Greek cities against Persian rule at around BC. Histiaeus, the ruler of Miletus was away from his city, acting as an adviser to the Persian king. He wanted to go back to Miletus, which was under the control of his son-in-law, Aristagoras, so he planned to stage a revolt in Ionia as a pretext for his return.
This is where the steganography comes in: He shaved the head of one of his slaves and tattooed a message on his scalp. The concealed text told him to rise up against the Persian rule, which kicked-off the uprising against their conquerors. Herodotus tells another story about steganography that occurred several years later, when the Spartan king Demaratus sent a seemingly blank wax tablet back to Sparta.
In the 4th century BC, Aeneas Tacticus made mention of a hole punching technique. Philo of Byzantium was the first to discuss invisible inks , writing about them in the third century BC. His recipe used gall nuts to write text and a copper sulfate solution to reveal it. The term steganography was first used in a book called Steganographia by Johannes Trithemius. The word combined the Greek steganos , which means concealed, with graphein , which means writing.
Steganographia was a clever book that was purportedly about magic and the occult, but used cryptography and steganography to hide its real subject matter, which centered around cryptography and steganography. This was a more straightforward book about steganography and its practice. This technique used two different typefaces to code a secret message into a seemingly innocent text. They involve shrinking a message or image down to the size of a dot, which allows people to communicate and pass on information without their adversaries knowing.
There have been a wide range of other steganographic developments and techniques over the years. Steganography continues to be practiced to this day, with low tech versions often used by prison gangs, and digital methods harnessed to hide data in pictures, audio and other media. When steganography is used properly, no one — apart from the intended recipients — should be able to tell that there is any hidden communication taking place. This makes it a useful technique for situations where obvious contact is unsafe.
The authorities may monitor everything going in and out of your cell, so you would probably have to hide any communication that takes place.
In this kind of situation, steganography would be a good choice. It may be challenging with the resources you have at hand, but you could write a plain sounding letter with a hidden message concealed with different font types or other steganographic techniques.
However, since the content of the conversation is top secret, the diplomat may want to use cryptography and talk over an encrypted line. If spies or attackers try to intercept the conversation, they will only have access to the ciphertext, and not what the two parties are actually saying.
If the political activist used cryptography to communicate with their organization, the authorities would most likely have intercepted it. The officials would see the ciphertext and know that the activist was trying to send encoded messages, then they would most likely stop its delivery and interrogate the activist about it. Conversely, diplomats are often monitored by their host countries.
If a diplomat tried to send steganographically concealed messages back home, they could be intercepted, analyzed and the content may be uncovered. If you wanted to hide the fact that communication was taking place, but also protect the message in case it was discovered, you could first encrypt it and then conceal it with steganography.
Using the cipher, you could shift each character to the one that follows it in the alphabet, giving you a ciphertext of:. Now that you have your cipher text, you can write it down on your piece of paper with lemon juice or whatever kind of invisible ink you have at hand. As long as your recipient knows where the message will be, how to reveal it heat, in this case and how to decrypt it, they will be able to access the secret communication.
If you wanted to increase the security of the communications, you could use more sophisticated encryption and steganography methods, such as AES and bit plane complexity segmentation BPCS , respectively.
Steganography has a number of surprising applications, aside from the obvious one of hiding data and messages. Hackers use it to conceal code in malware attacks. Printers use steganography as well, hiding imperceptible yellow dots that identify which printer created a document and at what time.
Steganographic techniques are also frequently used in watermarking and fingerprinting to prove ownership and copyright. Steganography is a useful practice, but it does have a number of limitations. There are two key factors that are often in competition — the first is how obvious and easy the hidden data is to detect whether by human perception or other forms of analysis , while the second is how much data can be hidden in a given file or piece of communication.
The higher the percentage of data someone tries to conceal, the easier it is to spot. How much data you can safely include in a given file will depend on the steganographic technique, risk level, and amount of scrutiny expected.
At lower percentages, the image will look essentially the same. As more data is packed in, the quality starts to deteriorate and you may even be able to see elements of the hidden picture. With this technique at a low risk level, you would want a five gigabyte file for each gigabyte that you want to hide. This makes steganography relatively inefficient. If your goal is to keep data secure and confidential, rather than to obscure the fact that communication is taking place, cryptography is generally a better option.
On top of the efficiency problem, the recipient also needs to know where and how information has been hidden so that they can access it. This generally means that you will need access to a secure channel so that you can discuss these details without any attackers intercepting them.
Because secure channels are often difficult to come by, particularly in situations that require steganography in the first place, this can be a difficult problem to surmount.
It depends on the situation, but if keeping information secure and inaccessible to unauthorized parties is of the utmost importance, then data should be encrypted with a private key before steganographic techniques are applied. There are too many types of steganography to cover each one, so we will stick to the more commonly used and interesting forms, giving examples of how they are used. Steganography was developed well before computers, so there are a range of non-digital techniques that we can use to hide information.
Throughout history, invisible ink has been one of the most common steganographic practices. It works under the principle that a message can be written without leaving any visible marks, only to be revealed later after a certain treatment is applied.
A wide range of substances can be used as invisible inks. Some of these include lemon juice, cola, wine, vinegar, milk, and soapy water, all of which can be made visible by heat. Laundry detergents, sunscreen, soap and saliva are also invisible inks, but they are revealed by ultraviolet light instead. There are also a number of combinations where the first ingredient is used to write and the second causes a chemical reaction that makes the image visible.
These include starch and iodine, iron sulfate and sodium carbonate, vinegar and red cabbage water, phenolphthalein and ammonia fumes, as well as salt and silver nitrate. Likewise, if the writing process leaves behind any signs, such as a different texture, scratch marks or an altered sheen, the invisible ink might be detected by the enemy.
He created a spy group in , and messages would frequently be sent between the members. They would often write a legitimate shopping list with an invisible ink message hidden underneath, just in case the note was intercepted. They used an ink developed by Dr. James Jay. The letters were also frequently written in code, just in case the British came across one of the messages.
Combining steganography with encryption added another layer of protection. Null ciphers hide their real messages amid seemingly normal text, using a range of different techniques. Common examples include creating a mundane text, where every nth word, or even letter, is part of the secret message. For example, if we use a null cipher where every fifth word is our real message, we can take a message like:.
You can create and use null ciphers according to just about any scheme you can think of, as long as your recipient knows the technique. Courtesy of the FBI. When you read every fifth word, which the FBI has thankfully highlighted for us, it becomes much more sinister. It was an interesting development, because it hides the secret message in the format of the text rather than its content. As you can see, in this example are two different font styles for both lower and upper case letters.
The secret message is formed by blocks of five letters. The particular arrangement of the fonts in each group of five letters represents a single letter of the hidden message. A different encoding method could be used as well, making it even more difficult for your enemies to uncover the hidden text.
Obviously, this is longer and far less efficient, and you will also have to make sure that your recipient knows about the new encoding method. In recent times, the notorious white supremacist gang, the Aryan Brotherhood , used it to encode lists of gang members and order hits on its enemies. If you want to hide messages or other information, one of the best techniques is to make it invisible, or at least as close as possible. This is the school of thought behind microdots.
They were first developed in the late 19th century and improved upon during the 20th. Photographic techniques can shrink down images or text to a tiny fraction of the original size. By , a method developed by Emanuel Goldberg was so sophisticated that a regular printed page could be shrunk down to one hundredth of a square millimeter. Microdots allowed people to hide large amounts of information without any obvious trace. Spies could hide them on their person, send them through the mail, or keep information stored on them.
Unless an adversary is already suspicious, microdots are almost impossible to detect, due to their tiny nature. He was a wealthy man who had infiltrated the German military intelligence service, the Abwehr. This lapse led to the US being blindsided by the Pearl Harbor attack. An example of the code left behind by printers. Printer Steganography by Parhamr licensed under CC0. Since the s, various printer manufacturers have programmed their machines to print out a series of almost imperceptible yellow dots on every single page.
This information is repeated again and again across the page, so that the information can be recovered even if only a fraction of a page is found, or if the printed code is damaged due to printer error, moisture, or other problems.